Landforms formed by Mature Stage Middle Course River

Landforms formed by Mature Stage Middle Course River

Posted by Manisha on May 18, 2020

Do you know our oldest civilization Mesopotamia was situated on the bank of river Tigris and Euphrates and today we are civilized everywhere in the world? But still, rivers are our lifeline.
I lived on the bank of river Ganga, in Varanasi, among one of the oldest cities of the world known for its culture, and most importantly for its fertile lands like alluvial plains, alluvial fans, and flood plains.

Here in this post you will get to know how river formed various landforms in its middle course of flow. Here, rivers in their middle course act like a mature human being and worked in a most productive manner, which resulted in various useful landforms.

three stages of river
Three stages of a River

Middle Course River

  • When the river enters into the plains after the mountainous region, then its called the middle course of the river.
  • The gradient or slope is gentle here.
  • The Lateral (sideways) erosion has widened the channel.
  • The volume of water and energy is more in the watercourse.
  • It is the middle part of the river.
  • Here, Depositional and Meandering are more than Erosional work.

8 landforms of the Mature Stage

Following landforms are formed in this middle course river are:

Meander
  • The river does not flow in a straight way on its middle course.
  • It flows like a snake, in series of regular sinuous curves, U-bends, loops, turns.
  • It is a result of both depositional and erosional fluvial processes. 
  • The river erodes on its convex bank.

For example, Ganga, Yamuna, Satluj rivers of India.

Oxbow Lake
  • It is a U-shaped and crescent-shaped, free-standing body of water. 
  • It is formed when a wide meander of a river cut off from its mainstream and starts flowing on a new stream of the river, due to erosional and depositional work of river over a long time period.
  • It looks like horseshoes.

For example, Kanwar lake is the largest freshwater oxbow lake in Asia, located in Begusarai- Bihar, India, Vynthala Lake in Kerela, India.

River Cliff
  • Cliff is a result of lateral erosion.
  • It is also known as a cut bank.
  • It is formed when a fast-flowing river course erodes, on its outer edge of a stream bed.
  • It is mostly found in vertical form and tends to expose the root system of trees and plants found along the streams.
Slip-off Slope
  • It is a depositional feature or landform. 
  • It is formed due to the deposition of sediments on its convex, inside the bank of the meandering river.
  • It has a very gentle slope.
Flood Plain
  • It is an area adjacent or beside a river stream which regularly becomes flooded during the periods of high discharge or whenever there is too much water in the river.
  • It is formed when a river leaves behind or deposit its silt and fine soil, in layers, to the adjacent areas.
  • These areas are very fertile and rich in Alluvial soil.
Alluvial Plain
  • It is the larger form of the flood plain.
  • An alluvial plain is the large flat landform that is formed due to the depositional work of the river over a long period of time.
  • It has a very gentle slope.
  • These are the most fertile land all over the world.
  • It is good for agriculture.

For example, Mississippi, Ganga, Huang ho, Sindhu, Nile rivers are famous for Alluvial plains.

Alluvial Fan
  • When the river enters into the plains or into the foothills, the velocity of the river suddenly decreases. Then the river deposits all its transported material like small gravel of rocks, silt, sediments over this area.
    This deposited triangular, fan-shaped alluvial and another material is known as alluvial fans.
  • Alluvial fans are prone to flooding.

For example, River Godavari in India.

Alluvial Cone
  • It is an alluvial fan but with steep slopes and narrower than a fan formed cone-like shape. 
    That is why it is known as the Alluvial cone.
  • Found on the foothills.

These are 8 landforms that are formed by the river while flowing through its middle course. 

Do you have any beautiful encounters with these above-mentioned landforms?
Or maybe you are lucky enough to live in the lap of anyone mentioned feature?

I welcome you to share feelings, experience, and stories freely here which may help and encourage many more. 

In my post How the old age of the river deposited all its eroded material to form landforms? I  will discuss some more beautiful landforms of the river.